Listen: Urban Ecosystems with Scott Quitel

In this episode of Sounds of the Rail Park, Scott Quitel, Founder and CEO of Land Health Institute in Philadelphia, explores the unique urban ecology of Philadelphia and the Rail Park, and the surprising natural occurrences you might find around town. Available June 18, 2021.


[00:00:00] Rebecca Cordes Chan: [00:00:00] Hey everyone. Rebecca Cordes Chan here, executive director at Friends of the Rail Park. Today on Sounds of the Rail Park we’re joined by Scott Quitel, founder and CEO of the Land Health Institute in Philadelphia. Land Health Institute is a nonprofit based in the West Parkside neighborhood of Philadelphia with a mission to restore connections between nature and people.

They’re focused on exploration, immersive at-the-source environmental education and community-based land revitalization. Scott has expertise in ecologically based land use planning, restoration analysis and landscape design and construction. He spent a lot of time exploring the developed and undeveloped parts of the rail park as well as the neighborhoods that surround it.

And I’m delighted to be in conversation with him in regards to the natural and human ecology of the rail park. And really, so much more. 

Ten years ago, a small group of community members looked to the rusty rails that run through their neighborhood and saw potential: potential for a beautiful, usable public space. When completed, the Rail Park will connect more than 10 neighborhoods with 3 miles of continuous green space. A space for everyone: young and old, athlete and artist, neighbors and visitors alike. 

Friends of the Rail Park presents: Sounds of the Rail Park. 

[00:01:23] Hey Scott, it’s great to have you here today. Could you start by describing the natural ecology of the rail park and surrounding areas and how does it change throughout the seasons?

Scott Quitel: Sure, Rebecca, and thanks for the invite to kind of talk about this super cool spot, [00:01:35] the Rail Park. And when I talk about the Rail Park, I’m going to be talking mostly about the raised section. Um, so meaning we’re above the ground and, uh, I’ll use the word viaduct. Might occasionally use the word Cut, that’s a part of the, uh, Overall rail park That’s a little bit below the ground, so hopefully that’ll, that’ll be clear.

But the, uh, the viaduct or the rail park is this absolutely unique ecosystem. And, um, it’s, it’s, uh, Like you almost can’t compare it to anything. Um, because if you know, one way to look at it is if you had a container garden, um, that you, that you put in your backyard, so you got a container, you put some soil into it and you put some plants into it.

Lo and behold, you have an ecosystem, but the ecosystem is confined by that container. And so the viaduct is this raised, structure in, in the air 20 feet or so off of the ground. And it’s literally an ecosystem unto itself. And it’s really an example of something [00:02:40] that. You could call it spontaneous nature.

And, uh, when we talked a little bit about the history of this thing and how humans have really kind of sparked its development and its growth, even though they never intended to you learn that something happened where, you know, Trains were running on the structure, train, stopped running. And next thing you know, nature took over like a designer, like a settler.

And so like the whole, the whole environment up on top of that structure, it’s novel. So some people call it a novel ecosystem or it’s spontaneous because nobody really planted it. It sorta just planted itself. So it’s a fascinating place to, to explore and take in. 

Rebecca Cordes Chan: [00:03:20] I love that. And I love this idea of, uh, almost like the raised planter bed at a massive scale. That’s really interesting.

Scott Quitel: [00:03:26] Yeah, it’s become a gem of Philadelphia. And, um, and it’s something that we, that we really want to talk about also, like, what do you do with this gem? Nobody intended it way back a railroad company intended to efficiently get you above everything else. Um, all the great crossings and efficiently get you into the Redding terminal.

Um, and we all know that in 84, That all went underground. And then we were left with this, this raised, you know, bed of sorts. And, um, and now you have this thing and, and there’s all these kind of questions that come into it. Not necessarily, how do we just develop it and make the next timeline of, um, that New York has and put that in Philadelphia.

But what do we do about the fact that there’s 80, some odd species that found their way up there? And there’s like, literally like systems upon systems growing within there. Now, what do we do? So in, uh, on the subject of, of novel or spontaneous ecosystems, we have a situation here. That’s, that’s really fascinating for Philadelphia, but really fascinating, just, just in general.

And there’s a place in Philadelphia that is a literally behind the, the Schuylkill river dam. And in the early 18 hundreds, a decision was made. To build infrastructure, right. And they, so [00:04:40] they built the Fairmount dam as a way to, um, get water up into the top of Fairmount and that got piped into the city.

And we had this fascinating marvel called the waterworks that took place. Nobody was really thinking about the impact of putting that dam there necessarily. So, but what it did was it caused a bill like a buildup of silt behind, behind it, because it slowed down the river and. Since those days and the industrial revolution, one thing that has become endangered over time is, is something that’s called like, you know, river habitat, right?

Pairing and habitat, but really valuable area next to a river that harbors a lot of wildlife that, that manages stormwater. And so it really does a whole lot for us. And if you go to cities right now, you don’t see it anymore. But what happened behind Fairmount dam is all the silt started to build up in an area where they had knocked down all the trees and stuff.

And like years later, trees started growing on a section of silt. And to this [00:05:40] day, right behind the falls, you have this thing that I hear people refer to. I don’t know if it’s its official name as silt Island and on this Island of mud. You have all these trees like Cottonwood and red maple and stuff that, that are really, really valuable as river habitat and nobody intended it.

And now you, you actually have this endangered environment that they created itself. With, with some help from people. So that same analogy holds to the viaduct. And when we start thinking about, well, what do we do with the viaduct? What do you call it? You can’t categorize the viaduct. Like you can’t call it Eastern deciduous forest.

You can’t call it, um, you know, Eastern Prairie or meadow or something like that. It doesn’t even have a name other than it’s some kind of an urban. Ecosystem that that evolved.

Rebecca Cordes Chan: And if I could [00:06:29] just ask a question. So you had mentioned there are 80 some species of plants up there, you know, just a few moments ago.

Uh, do we consider those plants, you know, kind of native plant or plants or species to the area? Like, how does this, how [00:06:43] does that idea of the different species up there interact with this idea of these kind of rare or novel ecosystems that you’re referring to? 

Scott Quitel: [00:06:45] Yeah, so, so in a novel ecosystem, one of the things that it almost makes you have to ask is.

What really is something that’s native. Okay. So what is native to Philadelphia mean? Technically, it would mean something that was growing here prior to European civilization. It’s the plants that were indigenous to plants that were always here. And then we’ve done all kinds of things around interstate.

Travel and commerce and things like that. And lo and behold, we have like, you know, lots of Asian and European plants that grow quite well in Philadelphia. And so when you remove all your native soil and your native rock structure and your native hydrology, and then it’s a couple hundred years later, what really is native to an ecosystem.

So when we go back to the technical term for native. The Viaduct has really a mix there’s there’s plants that have always been in the Philadelphia region, you know, dating [00:07:40] back in to, you know, early natural history. And then there’s a lot of plants that, that come from other countries and then they, and they basically all grow together.

And that’s really what makes this thing, a novel system where you might have like this Asian plant growing extremely well, you know, with, uh, with a totally, um, American plant, but what’s really fascinating. About that number is that about five years ago, our group land health was asked to do a botanical survey of the plants growing on the viaduct.

And it followed a survey that another group had done about five years before us and the group that before us found 50, some odd species of plants growing up there. And then when we did our survey, We actually found, I believe it was like 78, just, just below 80 species. And so what you have is you have evolution taking place on this, on this really extreme set of conditions known as the viaduct.

So it’s, you almost need to ignore the question of what’s native or what’s non-native because you’d almost have to say what’s native to a [00:08:40] viaduct. What’s native to a structure that’s not, that’s disconnected from the soil system and street level? 

Rebecca Cordes Chan: [00:08:47] That has metal and has this industrial history. Yeah. That makes so much sense.

Scott Quitel: [00:08:50] Yeah. So that’s what you got going up there. It’s real, and again, it’s, it’s, it’s what makes it this unique endangered thing. And then it also begs that question from a, from a looking forward standpoint, you know, with potential development, like, what do you do when you have these 80 evolved species that kind of like are like living hand in hand and then you asked earlier about like seasonality. 

If you have a structure that basically has no insulation because it has that stuff you’re talking about, the metal, rocks all packed together, there’s still wood left up there, but nobody planted soil up there. Right. They needed to hold a heavy railroad up there so it was, it was everything that would support, um, heavy train traffic.

And so now you know, you have these plants that have in effect kind of created their own soil system, but when it gets cold out, it’s going to be extra cold up on the viaduct because there’s, it’s sorta like that sign bridge [00:09:40] freezes before the rest of the road in a storm that there’s no insulation up there.

So when it’s cold up in Philadelphia, it’s really cold on the viaduct. When it’s hot in Philadelphia, it gets really hot. And so you see the plants actually they might change the look of their leaves or, or they might grow a little bit more truncated because they’re kind of, you know, responding to drought or conditions, drier conditions, windier conditions, colder or hotter.

So, so again, you, you plants show how entrepreneurial they are as they kind of, you know, they’re like, Whoa, what’s with the elements here, but if I can adapt here, I can sort of be like the King or queen of, of, of this habitat here. And that’s really what’s happened. 

Rebecca Cordes Chan: [00:10:20] I really love this idea of adaptation, but also coexistence at the same time. It’s really fascinating to think about that and how it all balances out. I’m also really interested in, you know, we’ve talked a lot about plants and nature um, but what about human beings and how are they kind of interacting and impacting the natural ecology of the Rail Park environment? 

Scott Quitel: [00:10:37] Humans are definitely a, a big part of what’s going on, but maybe not in the way that one might first think. The history of the viaduct in itself really is what’s shaped the ecology. So, so again, just like a century or more ago, decision was made, let’s let’s, uh, let’s build this structure in the first place. So obviously that human decision kicked into motion, I’m going to put quotes around it, like a habitat of sorts, but really a habitat to, to efficiently get people into the city.

And then on the, on the side of that human based habitat, um, you might have had, um, some plants that do pop up, you know, just like you see plants growing on the side of the road. So for century humans set something up so that they build a structure, but the utilize the structure so much that it really wasn’t hospitable to many species.

Then humans make the decision that let’s turn the switch off. So it’s 1984, you know, it’s better if we, if we throw the trains underground, let them enter the city that way and what we need to do is just shut the electric off. So that, that takes place, [00:11:42] and lo and behold, this, this very carefully engineered structure in the sky is just kind of left to be without any plan, at least at that time.

And so that human impact of shutting off the switch is really what put into motion the spontaneous nature that we just talked about. So humans had a hand in it, even though nobody was necessarily thinking that way. The beauty of it is now that you’ve set that up, it’s kind of like humans might want to impact things and it’s almost like we kind of can’t because it’s, it’s, it’s out of the way. It’s a little bit up high and unless you’re going to like pay somebody to come up there and maintain the thing, then next thing you know, you have these systems that are kind of allowed to to evolve on their own.

 And so in the last 30 to 40 years, the human impact up there in some respects, you can say it’s been extremely minimal. If you go up there, like one interesting thing that must have been done, I’m going to guess 20 years ago, but somebody [00:12:42] or some company probably went up there and cut down the trees that were up there. And so a dominant tree up there is Paulownia. It’s the Empress tree. It’s this beautiful tree with Perrywinkle flowers. It’s um, you know, from Asia. And it has a story unto itself, um, and how it got here, which we can touch on in, in, in a few, if you want to bring that back up. 

But, you know, so that tree is like the tree of Philadelphia. It can grow out of concrete. It literally comes from calcium, rich, um, clips and stuff in China and so it can grow out of something that, that has a lot of concrete in it, um, because, uh, Plants love calcium. So that tree must’ve grown on its own um, because this is, it’s a Hardy tree that can grow in such conditions. Somebody had the mind to cut it down. So what did the tree do? The tree didn’t die, it re sprouted.

So when you look closely at the Paulownia trees that are up on the viaduct, for the most part, the older ones, if you look down low, you see this big trunk, it was cut [00:13:41] down some number of decades a couple decades ago, and then it’s regrown. And so like, do you call those trees kind of like Paulownia shrubs where you wouldn’t normally do that if you’re Longwood gardens trying to raise your Paulownia trees. Um, there’s Paulownia trees that actually in circle Logan circle, um, you know, around the fountain, um, on one of Penn’s original squares. We traditionally keep putting Paulownias back in that place.

 So obviously they’re there for the beauty, but up on the viaduct, somebody cut them all down. They grew all back, but they grew back as shrubs so they responded. So there, the humans did a little something, but the then plants that they, they took over again. So it’s so, so that’s, you know, that’s some, that’s some of the minimal impact that the humans have had physically. I want to, if I can, I wanted to jump into some of the friends of humans.

At least we should consider them friends that, um, that, that had had actually more profound impact up on the viaduct than, than we humans have. And, uh, you know, namely, I’ll, [00:14:38] I want to call out squirrels and birds and then one inanimate, but still important, um, factor, which is wind. And it’s really those three factors that have made the viaduct 80 species rich.

And, you know, for instance, so many of the plants up there have really tiny seeds that can get dispersed in the wind. You know? So you have like established areas of this little blue stem grass. It’s beautiful. It’s a native species. It’s hardy. Um, it turns orange in the fall and lasts and stays orange all the way into the following spring.

So you would put it on your landscape at home if you, if you wanted to have a beautiful two or three foot grass growing there. Well, it has wind disperse seeds, so it’s easy to see how that could have come from a different place. Growing sometimes hand in hand with that as this dog bane species, it’s related to milkweed.

 Same thing, it has these feathery little seeds and stuff. They blow in the wind. So a lot of the plants got up there. It’s clear, you know, seeds blew up there. They [00:15:42] found a little crevice, lo and behold, a little moisture hit him, a little bit of dust from the city. They germinate. Bam. You get a new plant. Well, birds have really added to that because birds like to eat things and like we all do they, they make waste, right. They defecate. And so, um, and they just don’t think about where they’re doing it. 

So lo and behold, if they eat enough berries, a handful of the seeds of those berries are going to end up on top of the viaduct. And so, you know, when you have a certain set of trees and other species up there that birds like to eat, you know, a lot of, a lot of them are a product of the bird digesting the fruit and then dropping the seed.

The seed makes its way on onto the viaduct. Like black cherry is a native tree. And, um, it has these tiny little cherries. We can all eat them. They taste really good, they just, but they have, you know, you can’t crack your teeth on the pits when you eat them. But, um, you know, birds love to eat those cherries.

They’re good for you. They’re good for the birds. And you know, and then they, and then it’ll be natural for them to fly over and then they drop that. They drop that [00:16:40] seed. Next thing you know, you have a cherry tree growing. But that also makes sense, right? Because birds are flying all over and, and, um, and they can, you know, they can get almost anywhere because of, because of their ability to fly.

I really want to like tip my hat to squirrels because one of the most valuable set of species that you have up on that viaduct, it still blows my mind every time I, I see these things. So squirrels, as we all know, love acorns, they love nuts. They’re smart. They know that if you eat your, uh, you know, tree nuts with their essential fatty acids and things like that, it’s really good for you.

And it’s really good for them and nuts like acorns are really good, really for just about anyone other than somebody who might have a nut allergy. So what’s fascinating up there is there are Oak trees and some of them are relatively mature growing on top of this viaduct structure. And think about that for a second.

So a little tiny seed from a little blue stem plant, it must weigh a fraction of a gram. So for that to land somewhere and get into a little crevice [00:17:45] and then germinate, you can sort of see how, like, you know, how that might happen. But, uh, for instance, there’s red Oak growing up there. Red Oak has a pretty big fruit. It’s called a big red Oak acorn. Now, how would that acorn, how does something like that grow when you, when you, when you’re on a rail bed, it’s basically, you know, rocks that are carefully, you know, smushed together to create structure and stability. There’s no nobody’s you can’t use a shovel up there. 

So it means that some enterprising squirrels must have seen fit to somehow find spaces between rocks or maybe move some rocks around because squirrels by their nature, they take their nuts, they eat some of them, but they definitely want to bury them in places so they can access them later when they’re hungry and foods more scarce. So it can only be squirrels that came up there. So now what you have up there is there’s at least three and possibly four species of Oak trees up there. And one of them is, is a Willow Oak, which you don’t even see in the city that much.

Um, [00:18:48] there’s a there’s Pin Oak up there, which you do see, and Red Oak can be a street tree, so you can see where the squirrels might’ve grabbed those acorns. But when you think about any emerging ecosystem, the fact now that there’s going to be the production of nuts, um, that’s going to benefit the squirrels.

It’s going to benefit other birds that come there, blue Jays love acorns. They’re probably going to then move acorns more and they’re going to help work with the squirrels and get acorns planted in other places. But basically any animal, carnivore, omnivore or herbivore, loves to eat acorns. Loves to eat nuts that fall from trees because instinctively, they must know that they’re, that they’re loaded with nutritional value.

So I just am always fascinated like that, that these Oaks continue to grow and they’re doing quite well up there, you know? So you have, we have the humans indirectly to thank because they shut the switch, but they left things alone. But then the birds and the wind and the squirrels picked right up.

Rebecca Cordes Chan: [00:19:43] I’m also wondering, you touched on, um, the different species [00:19:00] of Oak, for example, that you have seen up on the viaduct that were maybe surprising to you. Are there any other plant or even animal species that you’ve seen, um, that again are kind of surprising or unusual or kind of out of the ordinary from what you would expect? 

Scott Quitel:  You know, it’s, it’s a mix. [00:20:00] Um, you know, there’s, there’s this beautiful poppy plant and I don’t see people putting it in their gardens that much and right at 10th and Hamilton in a parking lot, that’s fenced off, there’s this beautiful poppy growing. It’s a gets, it must be like eight feet tall, but it’s an herbaceous plant. And then not coincidentally, you can find that same poppy growing up on the viaduct right around in that same place. As some, wherever it started one, you know, one beak at the other, but that plane has growing both on, you know, out of a parking lot, out of like asphalt and is growing out of the viaduct.

And that’s, you know, I’ve never really seen that plant until I came here. There’s a plant that we ended up calling nectarine and not peach. And again, that, wasn’t my call. I don’t know how you tell the difference if you’re, um, when you see a tree [00:20:43] grow and before the fruit grows, but basically, you know, nectarine is some kind of a hybrid peach species and there’s nectarine trees growing up there now, like I, you know, did a human toss a seed out the window? Did a squirrel, you know, bury a nectarine or peach pit?

Um, so that, you know, that definitely you know struck me as unusual, um, to see up there. Another thing that I found that I found like fascinating is how the plants have adapted up there in terms of where they’re growing. So in some places, you know, there’s this beautiful plant that I, I’m not necessarily surprised to see called Wooly Mullein.

And it’s a plant, another herbaceous plant that with its flower structure can grow up to be about eight or 10 feet tall, but the wooly Mullein, in certain places like, you know, where the viaduct crosses over Spring Garden street, the micro climate and the conditions of the structure itself understandably would, would, would be different if it’s on a bridge part [00:21:44] compared to another thing that might have a different kind of a support.

So you’ll see this, this 10 foot wooly mullien and growing in some areas, and then you’ll see that same plant fully mature, but it’s like three feet tall. The Pine Barrens is a really fascinating place in New Jersey and they have an area called the pygmy Pines and in the pygmy Pines that the pine trees and the Oak trees are fully grown, except they’re a fraction of what they normally are and throughout most of the forest of the Pine Barrens and you have that same kind of pygmy plant situation happening. And that, that, that kind of struck me and then afterwards, I thought, well, maybe, maybe that, maybe that makes a lot of sense. 

My favorite, you know, I’ve seen a lot of different birds up there, but, but, but birds really you know, we’re, we’re a, stone’s throw from the Delaware river, which is an up the coast flyway and so lots of migratory birds, you know, 10 blocks or so away are flying up the river. So they’re making their way here isn’t that necessarily that unusual, because when you think about it, when a bird is looking down, you know, [00:22:45] that birds eye view thing comes into place.

 If you’re over the Delaware river and you’ll, and you have some good peripheral vision, like a lot of birds have, and then you see this green way, um, kind of parallel with the river, you might say, wow, there might be a safe place to nest overnight, or that might be a safe place to go get some food. But, um, I was up there leading a class not too long ago and what was it? 

It was like a Woodcock, you know, which is, which is a fascinating bird. And they’re, they’re beautiful. They make it like a distinctive noise when they fly off lo and behold, a Woodcock flushed out of the trees or the, or the brush ahead of me when I was just like aimlessly walking. I wasn’t expecting to find anything like that. And if you look up what that Woodcock’s like to hang out there, like they’re wetland birds, they like to be in, you know, in a, in, in, in a wet area.

And, and you’re like, where did that Woodcock come from? What, what business does he, or she have up here, you know? So that, that stood out as, um, you know, as something that’s, that’s, that’s really, really fascinating. You know, I haven’t yet found a, [00:23:45] uh, you know, a reptile up there. Um, I wouldn’t be surprised if garter snakes have, will make their way up there.

Okay. Um, but, uh, you know, squirrels can climb, birds can fly, so you can see how, you know, how some of those animals get there. Um, that’ll be the next thing that excites and surprises me is then is if I find like an American toad or a, or a garter snake that somehow, you know, you, some of the places where that you kind of can connect from the ground plane up and they make their way up there, but that’s what stands out.

Rebecca Cordes Chan: [00:24:14] So Scott to the untrained eye, the Rail Park might look overgrown or even weedy, but there’s also something like super special about just the collection of plants and animals that are just bursting at the seams up there. What’s your take on that? 

Scott Quitel: [00:24:27] I actually think that’s like a really cool question. Um, because you know, as an ecologist, who’s done restoration um, for my career, we’re frequently asked like, you know, fix this wetland habitat or fix this Prairie habitat or forest. And also with someone who loves to travel, you know, like [00:24:44] go to this national park, it’s a special place it’s preserved. And as I’ve gotten more and more intimate with the, uh, with the viaduct over time, it really begs the question like, well, what makes a habitat special? What makes a habitat worth preserving and saving? 

And so sometimes rarity upon just unto itself is a reason that you might consider saving habitat. But then also you think about its overall value. And when you think about like a habitat that kind of emerged, it’s like literally new nature because it’s not even taken up any, any space at the street level, it’s raised, you know, 10, 15, 20 feet above the street level. And it’s, and it’s basically this self-contained, self-sustaining ecosystem. 

And so when we look at something like that in and of itself, we can say, wow, that’s a rare situation. Does that not itself warrant preservation? And what would make something like a remnant [00:25:44] habitat in Alaska necessarily any more valuable than a remnant unusual environment in Philadelphia? When you add to that, what it does for the city of Philadelphia, especially for the neighborhoods that live on, you know, on either side of, of this, this wonderland of green, how do you put a value on something like that?

And I think it really makes us, um, consider our values when you look at something like this and think, well, you know, What’s to say? This combination of native and non-native and, you know, with an odd soil structure and the plants kind of reforming things and designing and the squirrels doing their thing, isn’t that itself, something that, that, that might be viewed as an endangered habitat and one that we would consider highly worth preserving, you know, to the extent we possibly could? 

Rebecca Cordes Chan: [00:26:33] Well, Scott, I hate to end things here, but thank you so much for joining us on Sounds of the Rail Park. It’s been so fascinating to explore these ideas of spontaneous nature, of adaptation and resilience, um, all in the context of [00:26:44] the rail park and the surrounding neighborhoods, um, and really just, just kind of life and, um, vibrancy and vitality itself.

We could obviously talk about this all day, but I understand that you also have your own podcast at the Land Health Institute. So if people want to learn more about the natural ecology of Philadelphia and beyond, where can they find you? 

Scott Quitel: [00:27:02] I would love to have people, um, you know, check this, this stuff out further um, cause it’s fascinating. So Land Health Institute’s website is Simply check us out. You could always write a question at info @, and uh, you you’ll find that you’d be welcome to come out on a, on a on a tour of the city. Um, you’ll see our podcast, that’s called Ecosystem of My Mind and links to that and, um, and just overall invites to get involved, to really get, get more deeper understanding of the, uh, the urban ecology of Philadelphia. 

Rebecca Cordes Chan: [00:27:40] Awesome. Well, this has been an episode of Sounds of the Rail Park. If you like, what you hear, please leave us a review and stay in touch with us on Instagram, Twitter, and Facebook @ the Rail Park for more content. You can support Sounds of the Rail Park and other initiatives by Friends of the Rail Park by visiting

[00:28:00] Friends of the Rail Park is a 501C3 organization that drives the vision behind the transformation of historic rail lines that traverse Philadelphia into a continuous three mile linear park and recreation path, that connects and enlivens the social, historical and environmental fabric of Philadelphia’s communities.

Special thanks to our partners: Philadelphia Parks and Recreation, Center City District, William Penn Foundation, the John S. And James L. Knight foundation, 1830 family foundation, Wells Fargo Community Giving, the Philadelphia Cultural Fund, the Pennsylvania Department of Community and Economic Development and the board of directors and many members of the Friends of the Rail Park.

This tour was produced by Studio D Podcast Production for the Friends of the Rail Park. Music and Sonic branding by Simeon Church. Sound design, mixing, and mastering by Simeon Church and Ashley Lehman. Project supervision by Dylan Garvin.